This guide is designed for several audiences. First and foremost, it is designed for anyone seeking the preliminary knowledge of EnCase and guidance software. Encase has rapidly grown in popularity and demand in all areas of the computer forensics industry.
Nowadays employers have started recognizing the importance of this certification and are seeking this credential. Encase meets or exceeds the needs of the computer forensics industry. Moreover, EnCase has become the global gold standard in computer forensics. This guide was also designed for computer forensics students working either in an educational setting or in a self-study program.
Guidance Software has been a leader in the forensics industry by providing robust tools and solutions for digital investigations which matches individuals and industries requirements. Guidance Software, Inc. Other than industrial purposes Guidance Software is used by legal as well as law enforcement personnel. Guidance Software products are comprehensive and each product provides a unique purpose.
EnForce Risk Scientific revolution timeline worksheet is a tool that provides solution for automatically identifying, categorizing, and remediating confidential data across the enterprise. Enforce risk manager gives in-depth insight and control to electronic data across all storage solution and devices like file shares, servers, and cloud repositories.
This enables organizations to improve focus onto business intelligence, compliance and strengthen their security solution. However, with storing valuable or sensitive data comes inherent external risk. Through Enforce Risk Manager you can automatically pin point, classify and control sensitive data anywhere it is stored on premises or in the cloud, this is achieved with its degree visibility feature augmented with powerful data analytics and meaningful visualizations, hence reducing the surface area of inherent risk and indeed protecting data from internal and external threats.
Encase Endpoint Security is created to merge the two separate industry processes, Incident Detection and Incident Prevention, to help security teams proactively address the gaps in their security process framework. An enterprise may have multiple data points.
Due to a lack of visibility. The EnCase eDiscovery provides with continuous case assessment, an optimized process with the help of which, legal teams can quickly check necessary facts. Encase eDiscovery is designed for enterprise professionals, and provides the following:. The above diagram represents the workflow of eDiscovery.
EnCase eDiscovery enables your organization to hold all the essential capabilities you need from legal hold, identification, collection and preservation to processing, early case assessment ECAanalytics, review and production.
EnCase Product Suite Overview
Encase eDiscovery is used either for a single case or multiple matters; it delivers exceptional value that result into faster, cost-effective and consistent discovery while reducing legal risk.
The above diagram represents the workflow of eDiscovery, taking into account on legal aspects which are needed, for all kinds and types of legal cases. Encase forensics 8 is very rich in forensics functionality. Encase v8 provides functionality to execute powerful analytic methods against evidence in a single automated session.
While running this multi-threaded process, the Encase v8 optimizes the order and combinations of processing operations, ensuring the most efficient execution path is taken. This action is mainly useful when a drive has been reformatted or the MFT is corrupted. A commonly used technique for data masking is to rename a file and change the extension. Image files can be renamed so that they look like Windows DLL files. The signature analysis process flags all files with signature-extension mismatches according to its File Types tables.
Signature analysis is always enabled so that it can support other Encase v8 operations. When you select the Thumbnail creation option, the Encase v8 creates thumbnail records for all image files in the selected evidence.
This facilitates image browsing. A hash is basically a digital fingerprint of a file, commonly represented as a string data written in a hexadecimal format. The most common use for hashes are to:. For archive files, Expand Compound Files extracts compressed or archived files, and processes them according to the selected Encase v8 settings.
This includes nested archive files or zip files or. Select this setting to extract individual messages and attachments from email archives.Software for computer investigative specialists in private enterprise and law enforcement. X-Ways Forensicsthe forensic edition of WinHexis a powerful and affordable integrated computer forensics environment with numerous forensic features, rendering it a powerful disk analysis tool: capturing free space, slack space, inter-partition space, and text, creating a fully detailed drive contents table with all existing and deleted files and directories and even alternate data streams NTFSBates-numbering files, and more.
Also serves as a low-level disk imaging and cloning tool that creates true mirrors including all slack space and reads most drive formats and media types, and supports drives and files of virtually unlimited size even terabytes on NTFS volumes! It incorporates several automated file recovery mechanisms and allows to conveniently recover data manually. WinHex provides sophisticated, flexible and lightning-fast simultaneous search functions that you may use to scan entire media or image filesincluding slack, for deleted files, hidden data and more.
Via physical access, this can be accomplished even if a volume is undetectable by the operating system e. WinHex is an advanced binary editor that provides access to all files, clusters, sectors, bytes, nibbles, and bits inside your computer. It supports virtually unlimited file and disk sizes up to the terabyte region thousands of gigabyte! Memory usage is minimal. Speed of access is top-notch.
Similar to and as easy to use as the Windows Explorer's right-hand list. This browser lists existing as well as deleted files and directories, with all details. Allows to list cluster chains, to navigate to files and directories in the disk editor, and to copy files off the drive.
Works on image files and partitions even if not mounted in Windows because of native file system support! WinHex produces sector-wise copies of most media types, either to other disks clones, mirrors or to image files, using physical or logical disk access. The copies are forensically sound, they include all slack space and all free space. Very important for forensic examiners because it allows to work on the copy. Image files can optionally be compressed or split into independant archives.
WinHex can silently generate log files that will note any damaged sector it encounters during cloning. All readable data will make it into the mirror.
WinHex lets you check the integrity and authenticity of image files before restoring them. Besides, a DOS -based hard disk cloning and imaging tool is included.Slack space refers to the storage area of a hard drive ranging from the end of a stored file to the end of that file cluster. In typical hard drives, the computer stores files on the drive in clusters of a certain file size. For example, the file system on the hard drive may store data in clusters of four kilobytes.
If the computer stores a file that is only two kilobytes in a four kilobyte cluster, there will be two kilobytes of slack space. Slack space is an important form of evidence in the field of forensic investigation. Often, slack space can contain relevant information about a suspect that a prosecutor can use in a trial.
For example, if a user deleted files that filled an entire hard drive cluster, and then saved new files that only filled half of the cluster, the latter half would not necessarily be empty. It may include leftover information from the deleted files. This information could be extracted by forensic investigators using special computer forensic tools.
Computer Forensics/Digital Forensics: using Encase! Basic Steps & some Tips!
Hard drive termsSecurity termsStorage device. Home Dictionary S - Definitions. Related pages How to help make sure all data is erased on hard drive. How can I be anonymous on the Internet? Hard drive help and support. Was this page useful?Posted: Apr 14, 11 Posted: Apr 15, 11 Posted: May 13, 11 Posted: Mar 21, 19 All Rights Reserved.
Members: Online Now: Become an advertising partner. Strictly no advertising. Reply to topic. I understand the concept that the clusters allocated to the file are released by the operating system and that some data may still be there. However, I do not understand why you need to conduct a separate search in unallocated space. If I conduct a keyword search on the entire physical drive is it not already searching unallocated space?
Or does this search only apply to the headers of graphic files and video files? Back to top. There is no structure to unallocated space, so you may find remains of files that have been deleted, or moved when defragmenting. It could also have data from a previous use of the disk.
If keywords are only found in unallocated space, it may suggest that files have been removed. You also need to be aware of slack space in both clusters are NTFS directories. First, the parameters of an order might restrict you from searching unallocated space, although hopefully that is not the case.
Next, you may do separate searches in the interest of efficiency. In this case, you may want to look at allocated files first, especially if the unallocated space is significantly large. I like to think of this approach as targeted forensics If you have good reason to believe the pertinent artifacts are deleted, you could also go directly to unallocated first. By that I mean if your looking for word docs, pictures and other data, I strongly recommend doing the carve for each of the file types separate from each other.
Also, make sure the client or the direction is clear as to what you are investigating. Encase does a good job at carving data. If your simple text search doesn't turn up anything, I recommend carving the files and searching them with more intelligent tools that handle the pertinent file types.
Zirnstein ForensicInnovations. I was also able to identify the evil logins :.Computer Forensic is very similar to a post-Mortem examination for finding reasons of death. Difference is:. It helps in investigating data leak incidents, intellectual copy right thefts and other critical incidences. Different Tools required for the Forensic? At a minimum, you will need:. Locations where digital evidence may be found include the following:. Encase Forensics.
Here are some basic steps for carrying out Computer Forensics using Encase:.
Here, we will focus on Disk Drive only. Data Acquisition: The first step a Computer Forensics investigation is to acquisition of the evidence. That is: to obtain a bit-wise replica of the disk drive without compromising its integrity. To ensure integrity of the disk drive, all write-operation must be blocked while imaging. Common Forensics Acquired File Formats are:. Shutdown the crime-suspected computer.
Crime-suspected computer can be shutdown and rebooted from these bootable disks. These bootable disks allow acquisition of data with software based write-blocker.
The hash value is written into the evidence file. When we add evidence file to a case, the CRC value is automatically verified and the hash value for the evidence data is recomputed.
It helps to ensure that evidence file has not changed since it was acquired. Note : To recompute the hash value of the image, right click on the image, and select Hash. If you have been provided with a Raw Image example: DD format Disk Image created through FTK Imager and its hash value or without hash value, then you can compute hash value through md5deep. Select the type of image as shown in above image: for Example: Disk. With the use of multiple file viewers, files can be quickly searched and identified.
Adding Keywords: Encase provides a search engine to locate information anywhere on the disk image. It is recommended to create a keyword list prior to beginning the case. Starting the Search. By right-clicking and selecting Bookmark, important findings can be bookmarked. Here are some tips for using EnCase:. You are commenting using your WordPress. You are commenting using your Google account. You are commenting using your Twitter account. You are commenting using your Facebook account.
Notify me of new comments via email. Notify me of new posts via email.
Sign in to your workspace
Difference is: 1. Determine the root cause of a computer compromise.Posted: Feb 10, 20 Posted: Feb 11, 20 All Rights Reserved. Members: Online Now: Become an advertising partner. Computer forensics discussion. Please ensure that your post is not better suited to one of the forums below if it is, please post it there instead!
Reply to topic. What is the general consensus here? I have always associated unallocated space with space on a hard drive that is not part of a file system and free space as space that is available to be written or over-written if a file previously resided there as far as an OS is concerned.
So I will pose it another way. I have a follow-up question but I would like to see some peoples thoughts on this, thanks! Back to top. I could see why that makes sense, in that it's not completely free space, as it's part of a volume, but just not allocated to a file within the index of the volume.
Free space being that which is completely free and not within a file-system referred to as unused disk area I think in EnCase, off the top of my head, been a while now since I've used it. On the other hand, you could reverse that logic, something that's not assigned to a file-system is unallocated, and the non-used area within a volume is free space I'm not sure there's a right answer on this one who decides!
For example a discussion involving unallocated verse slack would be using unallocated to mean file system space not currently assigned, such as a deleted file. Running gparted to examine partition layouts would show unallocated as indicating drive space that is not part of any partition. Free space is what you can actually see in many OS tools, it means "available space that can be written to".
When you start from a wiped device and create for the first time a filesystem, all the free space is made of 00's. Belong to "unallocated" also the various forms of "slack" both within and outside the filesystem or volume, JFYI a tentative of slack definition is here: www. Let's try to draw a line.Recently deleted files leave slack space. The files are still there, but the area is marked unallocated. Host Protected Areas on disks are not visible to the operating system.
Boot diagnostics, BIOS support, and other manufacturer tools are generally loaded there in the host protected area. Rootkits can write to that space, which makes them difficult to detect because the operating system and anti-virus cannot see those rootkits either Volonino, This process forces the operating system to think a sector is bad, and therefore it will ignore it.
This is generally reversible by unmarking bad blocks and making them visible to the operating system Cisar et al. File System Checkers look for existence of data modifications of critical system files by checking file integrity by comparing checksums. Data detection utilities can also look for data in reserved spaces on file systems, changes in file sizes, and non-zero values in places where zeros should be.
This is indicative of data presence if the values are non-zero Cisar et al. Cisar, P. Cybercrime and Digital Forensics — Technologies and Approaches. Olzak, T. Skip to content. Digital forensics are. Here are some ways that data can be hidden within storage media : Example 1: Deleted Files and Slack Space Recently deleted files leave slack space. Computer forensics.