Kerak, north wall overlooking the city. Photo credits: Marielle Gouton. Particularly known for its castle, which it inherited from the time of the Crusades, the city of Kerak [ 1 ]. Its strategic location - a triangular plateau at an altitude of about 1, meters located a few kilometers east of the Dead Sea, has made it an important political and historical site, from the time of the Crusades and at least until the fall of the Mamluks early 16th century.
And even if, from the Ottoman Empire to today, the city has had a less glorious destiny, the thousand years of history medieval, modern and contemporary of Kerak allow to highlight some major issues that the region has could be confronted.
Before the Crusades. If it is at the time of the Crusades that Kerak asserts itself as a particularly important site, it is not unknown for all that. The region seems to have been occupied since the Chalcolithic period. The name of Kerak seems to be inherited from the Moabites who called him "Qir" and Aramaics "Karkha". During the Roman and Byzantine periods, the region sometimes functions as an administrative center, or even beats its own currency.
At the end of the Byzantine Empire and during the Islamic period, the city is surrounded by a wall fortified. At the time of the Crusaders: a particularly strategic site and a castle difficult to take. The Crusaders The site, as we know it today, seems to have been built under Foulques V of Anjou, king of Jerusalem, who seeks to consolidate the territory conquered during the expansionist period of Baldwin I, first king of Jerusalem: it is a question of protecting the kingdom's lines of communication, and of being able to easily encircle and neutralize all rebellion in the Frankish territories.
From its beginnings, the cross city of Kerak is designed for purely geopolitical purposes. It was in that Payen Le Bouteiller, lord of Outre-Jourdain from tobegan the construction of the castle of Kerak to transfer his power which was previously concentrated in Montreal Krak - today Chawbak. This new site gives direct access to the Dead Sea and then to the West Bank, where is the holy city of Jerusalem, then in possession of the Crusaders.
It allows a wide control over the entire region. The construction of the castle lasts from until aroundunder the reign of Philippe de Milly. This is an impressive fortification although simple because it has many natural advantages and seems difficult to take.
The castle is built on a triangular plateau, and its walls follow all along a steep ridge. On the north side of the castle is the entrance, which gives access to the town of Kerak: a deep ditch of about thirty meters separated the city from the castle, but it has been filled since.
The other three sides South, East and West are quite difficult to reach because of the steep slopes. The Crusader's defenses can be seen particularly well on the east side of the castle, whose wall was reinforced by at least three towers and overhanging a glacis [ 2 ]. JPEG - View of the ruins of Kerak. The most notable figure related to the history of Kerak is undoubtedly Renaud de Chatillon, who married in Etiennette de Milly, the "lady of the Crac", heiress of the lord of Jordan Philippe de Milly.
Thus, inseigniory and Kerak enter into his possession. However, Renaud de Chatillon is known to have particularly provoked the Muslims, leading expeditions on the Red Sea or against Mecca. Kerak thus becomes a prime target for Muslims: the castle will be besieged three times in the s.
The first time, in OctoberSaladin besieged the castle, but in December, the royal army of Jerusalem intervened to defend Kerak, forcing the attackers to retreat. In Julythe Muslims undertook a new siege, which failed again because the defenders were able to build effective siege engines during the winter: Saladin, who then decided to concentrate his army on the north side of the castle, must to give up again because the royal army threatens again to come to the aid of Renaud de Chatillon.
The last siege, led by the nephew of Saladin, Sa'd al-Din, in Marchwill this time be successful: indeed, although the defense holds, the heavy defeat of the royal army in Hattin in grythyttan dejting Renaud de Chatillon is killed leaves no hope for Kerak's soldiers to be rescued; the famine finally forced them to capitulate in October-Novemberand legend has it that the Muslims would have left the vanquished free, so much had they shown courage and bravery.
So, after the capitulation of the Crusaders, Kerak becomes Ayyubid. The Ayyubids Inthe territories of Egypt and Syria are divided between members of the Ayyubid family of Saladin. The latter's brother, Al-'Adil, receives part of the current Jordanian territory, and where Kerak plays an important economic and strategic role. Thus, the city hosts a garrison, and becomes a place of storage treasure for example.
The strategic importance of Kerak can be seen particularly well in when, following the capture of the Egyptian port of Damietta by the Crusaders [ 3 ]the Ayyubids offer to exchange the port of Damietta for a truce of thirty years and the former territories of the Latin Kingdom including Jerusalemwith the exception of the castles of Kerak and Chawbak: now, the Crusaders refuse the offer, especially because Kerak is not returned to them.
You can change your ad preferences anytime. Upcoming SlideShare. Like this presentation? Why not share! Embed Size px. Start on. Show related SlideShares at end. WordPress Shortcode. Full Name Comment goes here. Are you sure you want to Yes No. Harriet Paterson You can hardly find a student who enjoys writing a college papers. Among all the other tasks they get assigned in college, writing essays is one of the most difficult assignments.
Fortunately for students, there are many offers nowadays which help to make this process easier. Edriss Al Ghreeb. Ramadan Subhi. Show More. No Downloads. Views Total views. Actions Shares. Embeds 0 No embeds. No notes for slide. She died. This is the book I bought yesterday.حل كتاب الطالب والنشاط ( كامل) Flying High 2 - الأول الثانوى الفصل الثاني ( كتاب المعلم)
Anas helped him.Returns: json object containing array of objects, each object contains the "sura", "aya", "translation" and "footnotes". Returns: json object containing the "sura", "aya", "translation" and "footnotes". Sahih Al-Bukhari, Vol. Verily, he was a grateful slave.
And We decreed for the Children of Israel in the Scripture: indeed you would do mischief in the land twice and you will become tyrants and extremely arrogant! So, when the promise came for the first of the two, We sent against you slaves of Ours given to terrible warfare.
They entered the very innermost parts of your homes. And it was a promise completely fulfilled. Then We gave you a return of victory over them. And We helped you with wealth and children and made you more numerous in man-power. And We said : "If you do good, you do good for your ownselves, and if you do evil you do it against yourselves. And We have made Hell a prison for the disbelievers.
And that those who believe not in the Hereafter, for them We have prepared a painful torment Hell. Curse him" and that one should not do, but one should be patient]. Then, We have obliterated the sign of the night with darkness while We have made the sign of the day illuminating, that you may seek bounty from your Lord, and that you may know the number of the years and the reckoning. And We have explained everything in detail with full explanation.
بحث عن منطقة عسير بالانجليزي
It will be said to him : "Read your book. You yourself are sufficient as a reckoner against you this Day.
Whoever goes right, then he goes right only for the benefit of his ownself. And whoever goes astray, then he goes astray to his own loss. And We never punish until We have sent a Messenger to give warning. Then, they transgress therein, and thus the word of torment is justified against it them.
Then We destroy it with complete destruction. Whoever desires the quick-passing transitory enjoyment of this worldWe readily grant him what We will for whom We like. And whoever desires the Hereafter and strives for it, with the necessary effort due for it i. On each - these as well as those - We bestow from the Bounties of your Lord. And the Bounties of your Lord can never be forbidden. See how We prefer one above another in this worldand verily, the Hereafter will be greater in degrees and greater in preferment.
And your Lord has decreed that you worship none but Him. And that you be dutiful to your parents. If one of them or both of them attain old age in your life, say not to them a word of disrespect, nor shout at them but address them in terms of honour.Saudi Arabia to the north and Oman to the east are bordering on Yemen. The Yemeni population is growing by 2. Yemen is one of the poorest countries in the world.
Its HDI of 0. The Yemeni population includes several ethnic Arabs and non-Arabs among them, the 4 largest are:. The official language of Yemen is Arabic, however, there are different kinds of Arabic spoken within the ethnic group Sanaani Arabic spoken by both the Yemenis of the North and the Yemenis of the Tihama, but also the Arabic taizzi-adeni and the hadrami Arabic.
Yemen is the poorest country in the Arabian Peninsula. In he faced a major crisis with violent clashes between rival forces leading in late to the resignation of President Ali Saleh, the country's president for 30 years. The Yemeni revolution is a large-scale protest movement that began in early and is ongoing. Demonstrators demand democracy, the end of corruption, better living conditions and the departure of President Ali Abdullah Saleh.
Yemen is one of the most corrupt countries in the world corruption index 2. Even though the tensions following the Yemeni crisis are blurred, Yemen remains today, in danger of civil war: this risk of war is due to the fact that the Saleh clan retains control of many military forces and that his party of the ousted president, the People's General Congress, continues to oppose the Joint Meeting of the Former Opposition Parties.
To respond to this political instability, a national unity government has been formed. He is responsible for drafting a new constitution that meets the expectations of the people, in the respective new presidential and legislative elections to be held in Very difficult socio-economic conditions. To respond to the crisis and thus reduce tensions, economic stimulus measures have been put in place, such as wage increases, job creation and the reinstatement of fuel subsidies.
The current government wants to focus on social stability and austerity. A climate of insecurity and political instability that remains. In the south, in the former People's Democratic Republic, we see again a growing desire of the population of the South to separate from the state.
In the north, despite a ceasefire with rebellion by Zaydi Shiite tribes, fighting is likely to resume. To all this is added the intrusion of Al-Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula, even if all the other political institutions seem to oppose this movement. The geostrategic position of the country reinforces this political and security instability:. The country is suffering mainly from desertification and lack of water, which hampers the development of its agriculture. Yemen is also regularly affected by sandstorms.
There are no major health and epidemic risks in Yemen. In hospitals, there is really no reliable infrastructure to deal with emergencies and large surgeries and all medical evacuations by air are exclusively from the capital Sanaa.
Yemen suffers from many economic and political handicaps that darken its future. Nevertheless, it should be noted that since Marchall representatives of the political and civil class, men and women, religious and laity, socialists and Islamists, old tribal leaders and young revolutionaries gathered in the capital to try to found a new Yemen called by the wishes of the Revolution of Adjective Clauses and Relative Pronouns.
Match the sentence halves. Rewrite the sentence, using a relative pronoun to join the two halves. Decide whether the relative pronoun can be omitted in each sentence.
If it can, rewrite the sentence. Where is the food that I brought home from the restaurant last night? The goalkeeper that plays for that team is from my hometown.
Combine each pair of sentences. Use the second sentence as the adjective clause. We saw a film on TV last night. It was really depressing. This is the restaurant. We have eaten at this restaurant for three consecutive days. You want to read an article. Do you like the textbook? You are using it in that class. Where can I find the supermarket?
It sells organic fruits and vegetables. You need to write a research paper. The paper cites at least three sources. Complete each sentence with an adjective clause. Use your own ideas. Complete the predictions about the future with the correct form of the verb.English Zone 5.
Unit 3. New Voc. Financial IQ. Financial tips. Cut way back on. Kind of. A big spender. A spendthrift. Keep track of. A cheapskate. A tightwad. Human trait. Saving account. Live within your means. Take up much so much room.
Political candidate. Homeless person. Live beyond your means. Hard to operate. Hard to put together. Substitute for.Eritrea is a country in the Horn of Africa east of the continent. Its capital is Asmara is located on a plateau at meters above sea level also the largest city in the country, second highest capital in Africa, fifth in the world rank. The country is bordered to the northeast by the Red Sea where it adjoins Saudi Arabia and Yemen, to the west by Sudan, to the south and west by Ethiopia and to the south-east by Djibouti.
Eritrea is a former Italian colony. It gained independence from Ethiopia on May 24,making it the youngest state in Africa. The regime chosen by the country is that of the one-party Republic. The Eritrean Parliament is a single-chamber, one-chamber parliament with members, of which 64 are appointed, and the remaining 40 represent members of the Central Committee of the Popular Front for Democracy and Justice.
His composition was terminated in February Issayas Afeworki Orthodox Christian has been president of Eritrea since independence, with no elections since. It is composed of three triangles green, red and blueolive branches and a golden crown. The green triangle represents agriculture, the blue one the Red Sea and the red the blood shed for the independence of Eritrea and for the homeland.
The golden olive branches symbolize the country's mineral wealth. The crown is inspired by the United Nations flag and symbolizes peace. The geometric shapes would have different meanings according to various people. For some, the isosceles form of the red triangle represents in some ways the shape of the country, while for others, it is arranged in such a way that its size diminishes from left to right, thus expressing the will to no longer have to shed blood in the future.
The coat of arms of Eritrea is the national emblem.
معلومات عن الكرك بالانجليزي
Adopted at the independence of the country, they present a camel surrounded by a crown of olive leaves. At his feet, one can read the name of the country in its official languages: English in the center, Tigrinya on the left and Arabic on the right.
The National Anthem of the country was adopted inthe year of the proclamation of independence and is called "Ertra, Ertra, Ertra" meaning "Eritrea, Eritrea, Eritrea ". The official currency is Nafka, at the rate of In the same period, Eritrea is estimated to have a population of 6, inhabitants, of whom Its population density is relatively low, with Today, many people leave the country and become refugees in Africa, Asia or Europe. Among them is an important part which constitutes one of the main flows that try to cross the Mediterranean.